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英国最新研究:转基因与非转基因玉米在分子层面实质不等同

2017-2-18 00:00

原作者: jrry86 翻译 来自: jrry86的博客
食物主权按:

        通常转基因推手信誓旦旦地说转基因食品安全,这一说法主要是依赖美国转基因标识法案(2016)出来之前老布什政府在孟山都操纵下所采用的实质等同原则,即“除非能够证明转基因食品存在风险性,否则就认定其与传统食品在实质上是等同的,不存在风险性”。近年来不少科学实验已经提供证据来质疑和否定这一假设,其中全球闻名的有法国科学家塞拉利尼团队的两年大鼠喂养实验。本次推送是关于2016年12月19日在英国著名国际性科技期刊《自然》杂志旗下发表的最新研究报告,该研究由伦敦国王学院的迈克尔·安东尼奥博士领导,揭露了转基因过程在分子层面给其带来的影响,揭示了美国孟山都研发推广的转基因玉米NK603与其非转基因对应物实质不等同。

塞拉利尼用转基因玉米NK603喂养大鼠两年证明其致癌。

译者按:本文是“可持续脉冲”网站对这项新研究的摘要介绍,该研究证明了转基因玉米NK603与其非转基因对应物实质不等同,转基因过程引发玉米内部代谢紊乱、营养成分改变、毒性物质增加等一系列非预期变化,而NK603正是塞拉利尼教授著名的两年期大鼠喂养实验所用的转基因玉米,塞氏的研究发现长期食用该转基因玉米的大鼠肝肾受损,还多发癌症。


而最新发表的这项由安东尼奥和塞拉利尼等多位科学家进行的研究则仔细分析了该转基因玉米与非转基因对应物的分子组成的异同,颠覆了工业界和管理机构所宣称的实质等同,从根本上动摇了转基因作物安全性的基础。因此在该研究文章发表当天的早上,就受到来自英国“科学媒介中心”的迫不及待地的攻击,而后者甚至连简单事实都还没搞清楚,并且还断然拒绝在科学媒介中心网站上发表研究者的回应,如果了解到这个科学媒介中心70%的经费是来自工业界的,这就一点也不奇怪了,详情请查看链接:http://www.gmwatch.org/news/latest-news/17384-science-media-centre-experts-misrepresent-study-findings-get-facts-wrong


中文译文


新研究显示转基因和非转基因玉米在分子层面存在很大不同


星期一在《自然》杂志旗下的在线开放阅读杂志《科学报告》上发表的一项独特的新研究,使用了分子剖析来展示转基因玉米与其非转基因亲本分子组成上的巨大不同。这些研究结果质疑了工业界和管理机构的“实质等同”立场,预示着可能引发严重的安全性后果。



这个新的经过同行评议的研究(链接:http://www.nature.com/articles/srep37855)是由伦敦国王学院的迈克尔·安东尼奥博士领衔的,它描述了基因工程过程给抗农达转基因玉米NK603分子组成造成的影响。

 

安东尼奥博士说:“我们的研究清楚显示转基因过程造成了NK603组成的极大变化,证明此转基因玉米与其非转基因对应物并不实质等同。腐胺和特别是尸胺的显著增加带来隐患,因为它们具有潜在的毒性,有报道它们能增强组胺的影响,因而加重过敏反应,并且这两种物质被认为会与肉制品中的亚硝酸盐作用生成致癌的亚硝胺。我们的研究证明有必要对长期食用NK603玉米的安全性进行彻底的研究。”

 

对蛋白种类("蛋白质组学")和较小生化分子("代谢物组学")的深入分析显示,NK603与其非转基因亲本在组成上存在极大不同。得到的这些结果不仅显示对能量应用产生干扰和氧化应激(活性氧对细胞和组织造成损伤),而且显示了某些物质(多胺)令人担忧的大量增加。

 

转基因NK603玉米中含量增加的多胺包括腐胺和尸胺,这两者会带来多种毒性效应。例如,它们能提高组胺的影响作用,因而加重过敏反应,并且这两种物质被认为与致癌的亚硝胺的产生有关。

 

总的来说,这项研究的结论否定了工业界和管理机构所宣称的NK603与其非转基因对应物“实质等同”,并启示对长期食用从转基因玉米衍生的产品的安全性应该作更彻底的评估。


研究背景


1. 组分“实质等同”的确立是管理机构评估一个转基因作物和食品安全性时所要求的一个关键的起始点。如果通过分析,发现某个转基因作物中所含有的营养成分和已知毒素,与相应的基因类似的非转基因品种(通常是其非转基因亲本)处于相似的范围内,则该转基因作物被视为“实质等同”,仅需作少量甚至不需要作进一步的安全检测,特别是在美国。

 

2. 转基因玉米NK603是被设计为抗草甘膦除草剂(例如农达)的,通过分析它与非转基因亲本玉米作物的营养组成,而被评估为“实质等同”。随后它被批准上市。

 

3. 但是,营养成分的分析相对来说比较粗糙,可能会错过转基因和非转基因食品之间微妙却很重要的不同,后者会给消费者带来健康后果。例如,营养成分的分析包括对蛋白质总量的测量,但实际上不同种类蛋白的图谱却更为重要。换句话说,信息存在于细节中,但这种细节在现行的调查一个产品实质等同性的监管检测中却很缺乏。

 

4. 本研究通过检测抗农达转基因玉米NK603,并以最接近的非转基因玉米品种作为对照,填补了上述组分信息的鸿沟。这两种作物在相同的地点和相同的季节在相似的条件下种植,分隔足够的距离以避免交叉污染。一块NK603玉米地喷洒了农达,而另一块NK603玉米地则没有喷洒。采集了两个种植季的两轮种植的样品。可以说是采取了所有预防措施来使可能影响作物组成的环境因素最小化。因此所得结果是一种比较性质的分析,特别着重突出转基因过程的影响。

 

5. 用此转基因玉米喂养两年以上的大鼠相比于对照组表现出更多的肝肾损伤(塞拉利尼等,《欧洲环境科学》,26:14,http://www.gmoseralini.org/)。


使用的分析方法


统称为"组学"技术的分析方法可以用来获得一个生物体系/物质的分子组成图谱详情的深度信息。这些技术包括转录组学(基因功能图谱),蛋白质组学(蛋白类型图谱)和代谢物组学(小生化代谢物图谱)。与总体营养成分分析不同的是,组学技术可以提供极详细的分子组成和生物功能信息,对健康或疾病状态具有高度可预测性。

 

在这项研究中安东尼奥博士与同事们进行了蛋白质组学(蛋白图谱)和代谢物组学(小生化代谢物图谱)分析,比较了NK603与其非转基因对应物,以深入理解用来产生这种转基因玉米品种的转基因过程所带来的影响。另外还研究了种植过程中未喷洒和喷洒农达的NK603,以确定这种除草剂对转基因玉米的生化性质以至于组成是否带来影响。

 

设计这种宽泛范围的分析检测就是为了更深入和精确地确定NK603与其对应的非转基因品种是否真的“实质等同”,这是否会带来任何健康风险。


结果


1. 发现NK603玉米中共有117种蛋白质和91种小生化分子(代谢物)被转基因过程改变,并具有显著统计意义。

 

2. 转基因过程是造成蛋白质和代谢物图谱变化的主要原因,而不是诸如喷洒农达除草剂或种植季节等环境因素。

 

3. 蛋白质组学分析所显示的蛋白图谱的变化反应出来的是能量应用失衡和氧化应激(活性氧对细胞和组织造成损伤)。

 

4. 代谢物组学显示出来的小生化分子图谱的不同主要表现为一组被称为组胺的化合物的增加;转基因NK603玉米中有潜在毒性的腐胺和特别是尸胺的含量显著增加。


结论


1. 转基因NK603玉米与相应的非转基因玉米品种实质不等同。

 

2. 转基因过程导致了NK603玉米的蛋白质和代谢物组成图谱的改变。

 

3. NK603玉米与对应的非转基因玉米实质不等同,以及NK603玉米中潜在毒性化合物(多胺;腐胺,尸胺)的增加,说明了应该对从这种转基因食品衍生出的产品的食用安全性,进行更彻底的研究。


与健康的相关性


转基因过程从总体上扰乱了转基因作物。是否是NK603玉米样品中尸胺和腐胺含量的增加导致了用这种玉米喂养的大鼠出现负面健康效应(译注:指著名的塞拉利尼大鼠长期喂养实验),还需要运用能特定并精确地定量这些多胺和其影响的方法,来进行实验室动物长期喂养实验,才能够进一步分析确定。

 

最先进的分子剖析“组学”方法可让我们深入了解转基因作物及其非转基因对应物的不同。这使得科学家可以通过检测已知毒素的含量增加(例如本研究中发现的含量增加的某些多胺)或者新毒素和潜在过敏物质的存在,来改进转基因作物商业化之前的安全检测。


本文:全文链接


http://www.nature.com/articles/srep37855


作者: Mesnage R, Agapito-Tenfen S, Vilperte V, Renney G, Ward M, Séralini GE, Nodari N, Antoniou MN.

 

对抗农达转基因玉米NK603所作的整合多重组学分析显示转基因过程引起了代谢紊乱。《科学报告》,2016;6:37855。

 

编者注:原文中的“parent”由原翻译“父本”改为了“亲本”。


英文原文


New Study Shows Major Molecular Differences between GMO and Non-GMO Corn


A unique new study published Monday in Scientific Reports, an online, open access journal from the publishers of Nature, has used molecular profiles to reveal major differences in composition between a GMO corn and its non-GMO parent. These findings question industry and regulatory position of “substantial equivalence” and have serious safety implications.

 

The new peer-reviewed study led by Dr Michael Antoniou at King’s College London describes the effects of the process of genetic engineering on the composition of a genetically modified Roundup-resistant GMO corn variety, NK603.


“Our study clearly shows that the GM transformation process results in profound compositional differences in NK603, demonstrating that this GMO corn is not substantially equivalent to its non-GMO counterpart. The marked increase in putrescine and especially cadaverine is a concern since these substances are potentially toxic, being reported as enhancers of the effects of histamine, thus heightening allergic reactions, and both have been implicated in the formation of carcinogenic nitrosamines with nitrite in meat products. Our results call for a more thorough evaluation of the safety of NK603 corn consumption on a long-term basis.” Dr. Antoniou stated.


In-depth analysis of types of proteins (“proteomics”) and small biochemical molecules (“metabolomics”) revealed major compositional differences between NK603 and its non-GMO parent. The results obtained show not only disturbances in energy utilisation and oxidative stress (damage to cells and tissues by reactive oxygen), but worryingly large increases in certain substances (polyamines).


Polyamines found to be present in increased amounts in GMO NK603 corn include putrescine and cadaverine, which can produce various toxic effects. For example, they enhance the effects of histamine, thus heightening allergic reactions, and both have been implicated in the formation of carcinogenic substances called nitrosamines.


Overall, the findings of this study disprove industry and regulatory agency claims that NK603 is ‘substantially equivalent’ to its non-GMO counterpart and suggest that a more thorough evaluation of the safety of consuming products derived from this GMO corn on a long term basis should be undertaken.


Background to study


1. The establishment of compositional ‘substantial  equivalence’ is a key starting point requested by regulatory agencies for  assessing the safety of a GMO crop and food. If analysis for nutrients and known toxins shows that the composition of a GMO crop is found to be in a      similar range to that present in a corresponding, genetically similar non-GMO variety (often the non-GMO parent), then it is deemed to be ‘substantially equivalent’ and to require little, if any, further safety testing,  especially in the USA.


2. Genetically modified (GM) corn NK603, engineered to survive being sprayed with glyphosate based weedkillers such as Roundup, was assessed as ‘substantially equivalent’ to its non-GM parent corn variety, based on a nutrient composition analysis of both crops. It was subsequently granted market approval.


3. However, the nutrient compositional analysis is relatively crude and may miss subtle yet important differences between the GMO and non-GMO food, which could have health consequences for the      consumer. For example, the compositional analysis includes measurement of  total protein content, yet this is less important than the profile of different types of proteins. In other words, the message is in the detail, yet this detail is currently lacking in regulatory analysis investigating the substantial equivalence of a product.


4. This gap in compositional information for the      Roundup-tolerant NK603 corn was addressed in this study by analysing this GMO with the nearest non-GMO corn variety as a control. The two crops were grown under similar conditions, in the same location and season, spaced at a sufficient distance to avoid cross-contamination. One field of NK603 was sprayed once with Roundup, whilst another field of NK603 was not treated with Roundup. Samples were produced in two cultivation cycles over two growing seasons. Thus all precautions were taken to minimise environmental factors that could influence the composition of the crops. The result is a   comparative analysis that specifically highlights the effect of the genetic modification (GM) transformation process.


5. Rats fed this GMO corn over 2 years presented signs of a higher incidence of liver and kidney damage (Séralini et al., Environmental Sciences Europe, 26:14)compared      with controls.


Analytical methods used


Analytical methods collectively known as “omics” technologies can be used to obtain an in-depth, molecular composition profile of a biological system/substance. These technologies include transcriptomics (gene function profile), proteomics (protein type profile) and metabolomics (small biochemical metabolite profile). Unlike gross nutrient analysis, omics technologies provide highly detailed molecular composition and biological functional information with a very high degree of predictability of health or disease status.

 

In this study Dr Antoniou and colleagues have undertaken proteomics (protein profiling) and metabolomics (small biochemical profiling) analyses, comparing NK603 with its non-GMO counterpart in order to deepen the understanding of the effects of the GM transformation process used to generate this variety of GMO corn. In addition, NK603 cultivated either with or without being sprayed with Roundup was also investigated in order to determine the effects, if any, of this weedkiller on the biochemistry and hence composition of this GMO corn.


This broad range of analysis is designed to ascertain more deeply and precisely whether NK603 is truly ‘substantially equivalent’ to its corresponding non-GMO variety and whether this raises any health concerns.


Findings


1. A total of 117 proteins and 91 small molecule      biochemicals (metabolites) were found to be statistically significantly      altered in NK603 corn by the GM transformation process.


2. The GM transformation process was the major contributor to variation in the protein and metabolite profiles, rather than environmental factors such as the spraying of the Roundup weedkiller or  the growing season.


3. Alteration in the protein profile revealed by the proteomics analysis was reflective of an imbalance in energy utilisation      and oxidative stress (damage to cells and tissues by reactive oxygen).


4. Small molecule biochemical profile differences revealed  by metabolomics mostly consisted of an increase in a class of compounds known as polyamines; the levels of potentially toxic putrescine and especially cadaverine were markedly increased in the GM NK603 corn.


Conclusions


1. GM NK603 corn and its corresponding non-GMO corn variety are not substantially equivalent.


2. The GM transformation process caused alterations in both protein and metabolite composition profiles in NK603 corn.


3. The non-substantial equivalence of NK603 corn with the      corresponding non-GMO corn, and the increases in potential toxic compounds      (polyamines; putrescine, cadaverine) in NK603 corn, indicate that a more   thorough investigation of the safety of consuming products derived from  this GMO food is warranted.


Relevance to health


The GM transformation process causes a general disturbance in the GMO plant. Whether the increased levels of cadaverine and putrescine found in the NK603 corn samples can account for the signs of potential negative health effects in rats fed on this corn needs to be further analysed in long-term feeding studies on laboratory animals, using methods that specifically and more accurately quantify the amounts of these polyamines and their effects.


State-of-the-art molecular profiling ‘omics’ methods could be used to deepen our understanding of the differences between GM plants and their non-GMO counterparts. This would enable scientists to improve the pre-commercial safety testing of GM plants by highlighting the presence of increased levels of known toxins (for example, certain polyamines found at increased levels in this study) or novel toxins and potentially allergenic substances.


The paper: FULL PAPER


http://www.nature.com/articles/srep37855


Authors: Mesnage R, Agapito-Tenfen S, Vilperte V, Renney G, Ward M, Séralini GE, Nodari N, Antoniou MN.


An integrated multi-omics analysis of the NK603 Roundup-tolerant GM maize reveals metabolism disturbances caused by the transformation process. Scientific Reports, 2016; 6:37855.


原文由“可持续脉冲”(Sustainable Pulse)于2016年12月19日发布;

原文链接:http://sustainablepulse.com/2016/12/19/new-study-shows-major-molecular-differences-between-gmo-and-non-gmo-corn/#.WFhQUtQ8KrV

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